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elaws - employment laws assistance for workers and small businesses - OSHA Fire Safety Advisor

HIGHLIGHT

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FIRE SAFETY ADVISOR OPTIONS

The Fire Safety Advisor has 6 basic options:

  • "Compile a brief overview " presents in the final report a synopsis of the OSHA fire safety regulations and, based on your answers to questions, it provides a summary listing of major regulatory requirements which apply to your particular circumstances.
  • "Compile the rules that apply" leads you through a series of questions to determine what rule provisions apply and compiles the full regulatory text of the applicable items.
  • "Conduct a detailed compliance review" asks you questions that focus on very specific regulatory requirements and compiles a list (including applicable regulatory text) of items where your answers indicate possible violation of standards or uncertainty about compliance. To save time you may limit the review to selected subtopics of fire safety regulations.
  • "Compile guidance on selected topics" allows you to select among various topics and subtopics of fire safety regulations to obtain full regulatory text and supplemental guidance information from non-manadatory appendices and letters of interpretation.
  • "Review the full text" presents the full regulatory text of OSHA fire safety regulations.
  • "Create Emergency Action and Fire Prevention Plans" prepares a word processing template that you can complete and edit to produce EAP and FPP documents that contain the required elements.

MENTAL, PENAL AND CORRECTIONAL INSTITUTIONS

OSHA regulations allow exit doors in mental, penal and correctional institutions to be locked provided supervisory staff is available to unlock them in an emergency and has been trained in emergency evacuation procedures.

FIRE EXTINGUISHERS

OSHA regulations specifically require that fire extinguishers be provided on powered platforms and in work areas involving use, storage or dispensing of flammable, explosive, or combustible materials, hazardous wastes, clean-up of hazardous materials releases, and grain storage.

MEANS OF EGRESS

A means of egress is a continuous and unobstructed way of exit travel from any point in a building or structure to a public way and consists of three separate and distinct parts:

  • the way of exit access,
  • the exit, and
  • the way of exit discharge.

A means of egress comprises the vertical and horizontal ways of travel and shall include intervening room spaces, doorways, hallways, corridors, passageways, balconies, ramps, stairs, enclosures, lobbies, escalators, horizontal exits, courts and yards.

MAINTENANCE OF EXITS AND FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS

Maintenance is a critical component of an effective fire prevention policy. Exits and access ways to exits must be kept clear of obstructions. Doors, lights, signs and other egress elements must be continually in functioning order. Fire extinguishers, alarms and detectors must be inspected and tested routinely and kept in working order continually.

DANGEROUS ITEMS NOT NORMALLY IN THE WORKPLACE

Other rules for provision of fire extinguishers, Emergency Action Plan and Fire Prevention Plan if explosives or flammable materials are normally present in the workplace.

EXIT ACCESS

Exit access is that portion of a means of egress which leads to an entrance to an exit. For example, an office doorway used to enter the main path of travel (exit) from the workplace at the time of an emergency is an an exit access.

IMPEDING EXIT ACCESS

Instances have been found where emergency exits were locked or blocked to keep them from being used to improperly leave or enter the workplace. Tragic losses of life have occurred when fire broke out in such workplaces. Alarms or locking devices placed on exit doors to prevent improper entry must release immediately when a person inside attempts to exit.

1910.157

1910.157(a)

(a) Scope and application. The requirements of this section apply to the placement, use, maintenance, and testing of portable fire extinguishers provided for the use of employees. Paragraph (d) of this section does not apply to extinguishers provided for employee use on the outside of workplace buildings or structures. Where extinguishers are provided but are not intended for employee use and the employer has an emergency action plan and a fire prevention plan which meet the requirements of 1910.38, then only the requirements of paragraphs (e) and (f) of this section apply.

1910.157(b)(1)

(b) Exemptions. (1) Where the employer has established and implemented a written fire safety policy which requires the immediate and total evacuation of employees from the workplace upon the sounding of a fire alarm signal and which includes an emergency action plan and a fire prevention plan which meet the requirements of 1910.38, and when extinguishers are not available in the workplace, the employer is exempt from all requirements of this section unless a specific standard in Part 1910 requires that a portable fire extinguisher be provided.

1910.157(b)(2)

(2) Where the employer has an emergency action plan meeting the requirements of 1910.38 which designates certain employees to be the only employees authorized to use the available portable fire extinguishers, and which requires all other employees in the fire area to immediately evacuate the affected work area upon the sounding of the fire alarm, the employer is exempt from the distribution requirements in paragraph (d) of this section.

1910.157(c)(1)

(c) General requirements. (1) The employer shall provide portable fire extinguishers and shall mount, locate and identify them so that they are readily accessible to employees without subjecting the employees to possible injury.

1910.157(c)(2)

(2) Only approved portable fire extinguishers shall be used to meet the requirements of this section.

1910.157(c)(3)

(3) The employer shall not provide or make available in the workplace portable fire extinguishers using carbon tetrachloride or chlorobromomethane extinguishing agents.

1910.157(c)(4)

(4) The employer shall assure that portable fire extinguishers are maintained in a fully charged and operable condition and kept in their designated places at all times except during use. * (5) The employer shall remove from service all soldered or riveted shell self-generating soda acid or self-generating foam or gas cartridge water type portable fire extinguishers which are operated by inverting the extinguisher to rupture the cartridge or to initiate an uncontrollable pressure generating chemical reaction to expel the agent.

1910.157(d)(1)

(d) Selection and distribution. (1) Portable fire extinguishers shall be provided for employee use and selected and distributed based on the classes of anticipated workplace fires and on the size and degree of hazard which would affect their use.

1910.157(d)(2)

(2) The employer shall distribute portable fire extinguishers for use by employees on Class A fires so that the travel distance for employees to any extinguisher is 75 feet (22.9 m) or less.

1910.157(d)(3)

(3) The employer may use uniformly spaced standpipe systems or hose stations connected to a sprinkler system installed for emergency use by employees instead of Class A portable fire extinguishers, provided that such systems meet the respective requirements of 1910.158 or 1910.159, that they provide total coverage of the area to be protected, and that employees are trained at least annually in their use.

1910.157(d)(4)

(4) The employer shall distribute portable fire extinguishers for use by employees on Class B fires so that the travel distance from the Class B hazard area to any extinguisher is 50 feet (15.2 m) or less.

1910.157(d)(5)

(5) The employer shall distribute portable fire extinguishers used for Class C hazards on the basis of the appropriate pattern for the existing Class A or Class B hazards.

1910.157(d)(6)

(6) The employer shall distribute portable fire extinguishers or other containers of Class D extinguishing agent for use by employees so that the travel distance from the combustible metal working area to any extinguishing agent is 75 feet (22.9 m) or less. Portable fire extinguishers for Class D hazards are required in those combustible metal working areas where combustible metal powders, flakes, shavings, or similarly sized products are generated at least once every two weeks.

1910.157(e)(1)

(e) Inspection, maintenance and testing. (1) The employer shall be responsible for the inspection, maintenance and testing of all portable fire extinguishers in the workplace.

1910.157(e)(2)

(2) Portable extinguishers or hose used in lieu thereof under paragraph (d)(3) of this section shall be visually inspected monthly.

1910.157(e)(3)

(3) The employer shall assure that portable fire extinguishers are subjected to an annual maintenance check. Stored pressure extinguishers do not require an internal examination. The employer shall record the annual maintenance date and retain this record for one year after the last entry or the life of the shell, whichever is less. The record shall be available to the Assistant Secretary upon request.

1910.157(e)(4)

(4) The employer shall assure that stored pressure dry chemical extinguishers that require a 12-year hydrostatic test are emptied and subjected to applicable maintenance procedures every 6 years. Dry chemical extinguishers having non-refillable disposable containers are exempt from this requirement. When recharging or hydrostatic testing is performed, the 6-year requirement begins from that date.

1910.157(e)(5)

(5) The employer shall assure that alternate equivalent protection is provided when portable fire extinguishers are removed from service for maintenance and recharging.

1910.157(f)(1)

(f) Hydrostatic testing. (1) The employer shall assure that hydrostatic testing is performed by trained persons with suitable testing equipment and facilities.

1910.157(f)(2)

(2) The employer shall assure that portable extinguishers are hydrostatically tested at the intervals listed in Table L-1 of this section, except under any of the following conditions:

1910.157(f)(2)(i)

(i) When the unit has been repaired by soldering, welding, brazing, or use of patching compounds;

1910.157(f)(2)(ii)

(ii) When the cylinder or shell threads are damaged;

1910.157(f)(2)(iii)

(iii) When there is corrosion that has caused pitting, including corrosion under removable name plate assemblies;

1910.157(f)(2)(iv)

(iv) When the extinguisher has been burned in a fire; or

1910.157(f)(2)(v)

(v) When a calcium chloride extinguishing agent has been used in a stainless steel shell.

1910.157(f)(3)

(3) In addition to an external visual examination, the employer shall assure that an internal examination of cylinders and shells to be tested is made prior to the hydrostatic tests.

TABLE L-1

Type of extinguishers

Test interval (years)

Soda acid (soldered brass shells) (until 1/1/82)

(1)

Soda acid (stainless steel shell)

5

Cartridge operated water and/or antifreeze

5

Stored pressure water and/or antifreeze

5

Wetting agent

5

Foam (soldered brass shells) (until 1/1/82)

(1)

Foam (stainless steel shell)

5

Aqueous Film Forming foam (AFFF)

5

Loaded stream

5

Dry chemical with stainless steel

5

Carbon Dioxide

5

Dry chemical, stored pressure, with mild steel, brazed brass or aluminum shells

12

Dry chemical, cartridge or cylinder operated, with mild steel shells

12

Halon 1211

12

Halon 1301

12

Dry powder, cartridge or cylinder operated with mild steel shells

12

Footnote(1) Extinguishers having shells constructed of copper or brass joined by soft solder or rivets shall not be hydrostatically tested and shall be removed from service by January 1, 1982. (Not permitted)

1910.157(f)(4)

(4) The employer shall assure that portable fire extinguishers are hydrostatically tested whenever they show new evidence of corrosion or mechanical injury, except under the conditions listed in paragraphs (f)(2)(i)-(v) of this section.

1910.157(f)(5)

(5) The employer shall assure that hydrostatic tests are performed on extinguisher hose assemblies which are equipped with a shut-off nozzle at the discharge end of the hose. The test interval shall be the same as specified for the extinguisher on which the hose is installed.

1910.157(f)(6)

(6) The employer shall assure that carbon dioxide hose assemblies with a shut-off nozzle are hydrostatically tested at 1,250 psi (8,620 kPa).

1910.157(f)(7)

(7) The employer shall assure that dry chemical and dry powder hose assemblies with a shut-off nozzle are hydrostatically tested at 300 psi (2,070 kPa).

1910.157(f)(8)

(8) Hose assemblies passing a hydrostatic test do not require any type of recording or stamping.

1910.157(f)(9)

(9) The employer shall assure that hose assemblies for carbon dioxide extinguishers that require a hydrostatic test are tested within a protective cage device.

1910.157(f)(10)

(10) The employer shall assure that carbon dioxide extinguishers and nitrogen or carbon dioxide cylinders used with wheeled extinguishers are tested every 5 years at 5/3 of the service pressure as stamped into the cylinder. Nitrogen cylinders which comply with 49 CFR 173.34(e)(15) may be hydrostatically tested every 10 years.

1910.157(f)(11)

(11) The employer shall assure that all stored pressure and Halon 1211 types of extinguishers are hydrostatically tested at the factory test pressure not to exceed two times the service pressure.

1910.157(f)(12)

(12) The employer shall assure that acceptable self-generating type soda acid and foam extinguishers are tested at 350 psi (2,410 kPa).

1910.157(f)(13)

(13) Air or gas pressure may not be used for hydrostatic testing.

1910.157(f)(14)

(14) Extinguisher shells, cylinders, or cartridges which fail a hydrostatic pressure test, or which are not fit for testing shall be removed from service and from the workplace.

1910.157(f)(15)(i)

(15)(i) The equipment for testing compressed gas type cylinders shall be of the water jacket type. The equipment shall be provided with an expansion indicator which operates with an accuracy within one percent of the total expansion or .1cc (.1mL) of liquid.

1910.157(f)(15)(ii)

(ii) The equipment for testing non-compressed gas type cylinders shall consist of the following:

1910.157(f)(15)(ii)(A)

(A) A hydrostatic test pump, hand or power operated, capable of producing not less than 150 percent of the test pressure, which shall include appropriate check valves and fittings;

1910.157(f)(15)(ii)(B)

(B) A flexible connection for attachment to fittings to test through the extinguisher nozzle, test bonnet, or hose outlet, as is applicable; and

1910.157(f)(15)(ii)(C)

(C) A protective cage or barrier for personal protection of the tester, designed to provide visual observation of the extinguisher under test.

1910.157(f)(16)

(16) The employer shall maintain and provide upon request to the Assistant Secretary evidence that the required hydrostatic testing of fire extinguishers has been performed at the time intervals shown in Table L-1. Such evidence shall be in the form of a certification record which includes the date of the test, the signature of the person who performed the test and the serial number, or other identifier, of the fire extinguisher that was tested. Such records shall be kept until the extinguisher is hydrostatically retested at the time interval specified in Table L-1 or until the extinguisher is taken out of service, whichever comes first.

1910.157(g)(1)

(g) Training and education. (1) Where the employer has provided portable fire extinguishers for employee use in the workplace, the employer shall also provide an educational program to familiarize employees with the general principles of fire extinguisher use and the hazards involved with incipient stage fire fighting.

1910.157(g)(2)

(2) The employer shall provide the education required in paragraph (g)(1) of this section upon initial employment and at least annually thereafter.

1910.157(g)(3)

(3) The employer shall provide employees who have been designated to use fire fighting equipment as part of an emergency action plan with training in the use of the appropriate equipment.

1910.157(g)(4)

(4) The employer shall provide the training required in paragraph (g)(3) of this section upon initial assignment to the designated group of employees and at least annually thereafter.

1910.158

1910.158(a)(1)

(a) Scope and application - (1) Scope. This section applies to all small hose, Class II, and Class III standpipe systems installed to meet the requirements of a particular OSHA standard.

1910.158(a)(2)

(2) Exception. This section does not apply to Class I standpipe systems.

1910.158(b)

(b) Protection of standpipes. The employer shall assure that standpipes are located or otherwise protected against mechanical damage. Damaged standpipes shall be repaired promptly.

1910.158(c)(1)

(c) Equipment - (1) Reels and cabinets. Where reels or cabinets are provided to contain fire hose, the employer shall assure that they are designed to facilitate prompt use of the hose valves, the hose, and other equipment at the time of a fire or other emergency. The employer shall assure that the reels and cabinets are conspicuously identified and used only for fire equipment.

1910.158(c)(2)(i)

(2) Hose outlets and connections. (i) The employer shall assure that hose outlets and connections are located high enough above the floor to avoid being obstructed and to be accessible to employees.

1910.158(c)(2)(ii)

(ii) The employer shall standardize screw threads or provide appropriate adapters throughout the system and assure that the hose connections are compatible with those used on the supporting fire equipment.

1910.158(c)(3)(i)

(3) Hose. (i) The employer shall assure that every 1 1/2 inch (3.8 cm) or smaller hose outlet used to meet this standard is equipped with hose connected and ready for use. In extremely cold climates where such installation may result in damaged equipment, the hose may be stored in another location provided it is readily available and can be connected when needed.

1910.158(c)(3)(ii)

(ii) Standpipe systems installed after January 1, 1981, for use by employees, shall be equipped with lined hose. Unlined hose may remain in use on existing systems. However, after the effective date of this standard, unlined hose which becomes unserviceable shall be replaced with lined hose. * (iii) The employer shall provide hose of such length that friction loss resulting from water flowing through the hose will not decrease the pressure at the nozzle below 30 psi (210 kPa). The dynamic pressure at the nozzle shall be within the range of 30 psi (210 kPa) to 125 psi (860 kPa). * (4) Nozzles. The employer shall assure that standpipe hose is equipped with shut-off type nozzles.

1910.158(d)

(d) Water supply. The minimum water supply for standpipe and hose systems, which are provided for the use of employees, shall be sufficient to provide 100 gallons per minute (6.3 l/s) for a period of at least thirty minutes.

1910.158(e)(1)(i)

(e) Tests and maintenance - (1) Acceptance tests. (i) The employer shall assure that the piping of Class II and Class III systems installed after January 1, 1981, including yard piping, is hydrostatically tested for a period of at least 2 hours at not less than 200 psi (1380 kPa), or at least 50 psi (340 kPa) in excess of normal pressure when such pressure is greater than 150 psi (1030 kPa).

1910.158(e)(1)(ii)

(ii) The employer shall assure that hose on all standpipe systems installed after January 1, 1981, is hydrostatically tested with couplings in place, at a pressure of not less than 200 psi (1380 kPa), before it is placed in service. This pressure shall be maintained for at least 15 seconds and not more than one minute during which time the hose shall not leak nor shall any jacket thread break during the test.

1910.158(e)(2)(i)

(2) Maintenance. (i) The employer shall assure that water supply tanks are kept filled to the proper level except during repairs. When pressure tanks are used, the employer shall assure that proper pressure is maintained at all times except during repairs.

1910.158(e)(2)(ii)

(ii) The employer shall assure that valves in the main piping connections to the automatic sources of water supply are kept fully open at all times except during repair.

1910.158(e)(2)(iii)

(iii) The employer shall assure that hose systems are inspected at least annually and after each use to assure that all of the equipment and hose are in place, available for use, and in serviceable condition.

1910.158(e)(2)(iv)

(iv) When the system or any portion thereof is found not to be serviceable, the employer shall remove it from service immediately and replace it with equivalent protection such as extinguishers and fire watches.

1910.158(e)(2)(v)

(v) The employer shall assure that hemp or linen hose on existing systems is unracked, physically inspected for deterioration, and reracked using a different fold pattern at least annually. The employer shall assure that defective hose is replaced in accordance with paragraph (c)(3)(ii).

1910.158(e)(2)(vi)

(vi) The employer shall designate trained persons to conduct all inspections required under this section.

1910.159

1910.159(a)(1)

(a) Scope and application. (1) The requirements of this section apply to all automatic sprinkler systems installed to meet a particular OSHA standard.

1910.159(a)(2)

(2) For automatic sprinkler systems used to meet OSHA requirements and installed prior to the effective date of this standard, compliance with the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) or the National Board of Fire Underwriters (NBFU) standard in effect at the time of the system's installation will be acceptable as compliance with this section.

1910.159(b)

(b) Exemptions. Automatic sprinkler systems installed in workplaces, but not required by OSHA, are exempt from the requirements of this section.

1910.159(c)(1)(i)

(c) General requirements - (1) Design. (i) All automatic sprinkler designs used to comply with this standard shall provide the necessary discharge patterns, densities, and water flow characteristics for complete coverage in a particular workplace or zoned subdivision of the workplace.

1910.159(c)(1)(ii)

(ii) The employer shall assure that only approved equipment and devices are used in the design and installation of automatic sprinkler systems used to comply with this standard.

1910.159(c)(2)

(2) Maintenance. The employer shall properly maintain an automatic sprinkler system installed to comply with this section. The employer shall assure that a main drain flow test is performed on each system annually. The inspector's test valve shall be opened at least every two years to assure that the sprinkler system operates properly.

1910.159(c)(3)

(3) Acceptance tests. The employer shall conduct proper acceptance tests on sprinkler systems installed for employee protection after January 1, 1981, and record the dates of such tests. Proper acceptance tests include the following:

1910.159(c)(3)(i)

(i) Flushing of underground connections;

1910.159(c)(3)(ii)

(ii) Hydrostatic tests of piping in system;

1910.159(c)(3)(iii)

(iii) Air tests in dry-pipe systems;

1910.159(c)(3)(iv)

(iv) Dry-pipe valve operation; and

1910.159(c)(3)(v)

(v) Test of drainage facilities.

1910.159(c)(4)

(4) Water supplies. The employer shall assure that every automatic sprinkler system is provided with at least one automatic water supply capable of providing design water flow for at least 30 minutes. An auxiliary water supply or equivalent protection shall be provided when the automatic water supply is out of service, except for systems of 20 or fewer sprinklers.

1910.159(c)(5)

(5) Hose connections for fire fighting use. The employer may attach hose connections for fire fighting use to wet pipe sprinkler systems provided that the water supply satisfies the combined design demand for sprinklers and standpipes.

1910.159(c)(6)

(6) Protection of piping. The employer shall assure that automatic sprinkler system piping is protected against freezing and exterior surface corrosion.

1910.159(c)(7)

(7) Drainage. The employer shall assure that all dry sprinkler pipes and fittings are installed so that the system may be totally drained.

1910.159(c)(8)(i)

(8) Sprinklers. (i) The employer shall assure that only approved sprinklers are used on systems.

1910.159(c)(8)(ii)

(ii) The employer may not use older style sprinklers to replace standard sprinklers without a complete engineering review of the altered part of the system.

1910.159(c)(8)(iii)

(iii) The employer shall assure that sprinklers are protected from mechanical damage.

1910.159(c)(9)

(9) Sprinkler alarms. On all sprinkler systems having more than twenty (20) sprinklers, the employer shall assure that a local waterflow alarm is provided which sounds an audible signal on the premises upon water flow through the system equal to the flow from a single sprinkler.

1910.159(c)(10)

(10) Sprinkler spacing. The employer shall assure that sprinklers are spaced to provide a maximum protection area per sprinkler, a minimum of interference to the discharge pattern by building or structural members or building contents and suitable sensitivity to possible fire hazards. The minimum vertical clearance between sprinklers and material below shall be 18 inches (45.7 cm).

1910.159(c)(11)

(11) Hydraulically designed systems. The employer shall assure that hydraulically designed automatic sprinkler systems or portions thereof are identified and that the location, number of sprinklers in the hydraulically designed section, and the basis of the design is indicated. Central records may be used in lieu of signs at sprinkler valves provided the records are available for inspection and copying by the Assistant Secretary.

1910.160

1910.160(a)(1)

(a) Scope and application. (1) This section applies to all fixed extinguishing systems installed to meet a particular OSHA standard except for automatic sprinkler systems which are covered by 1910.159.

1910.160(a)(2)

(2) This section also applies to fixed systems not installed to meet a particular OSHA standard, but which, by means of their operation, may expose employees to possible injury, death, or adverse health consequences caused by the extinguishing agent. Such systems are only subject to the requirements of paragraphs (b)(4) through (b)(7) and (c) of this section.

1910.160(a)(3)

(3) Systems otherwise covered in paragraph (a)(2) of this section which are installed in areas with no employee exposure are exempted from the requirements of this section.

1910.160(b)(1)

(b) General requirements. (1) Fixed extinguishing system components and agents shall be designed and approved for use on the specific fire hazards they are expected to control or extinguish.

1910.160(b)(2)

(2) If for any reason a fixed extinguishing system becomes inoperable, the employer shall notify employees and take the necessary temporary precautions to assure their safety until the system is restored to operating order. Any defects or impairments shall be properly corrected by trained personnel.

1910.160(b)(3)

(3) The employer shall provide a distinctive alarm or signaling system which complies with 1910.165 and is capable of being perceived above ambient noise or light levels, on all extinguishing systems in those portions of the workplace covered by the extinguishing system to indicate when the extinguishing system is discharging. Discharge alarms are not required on systems where discharge is immediately recognizable.

1910.160(b)(4)

(4) The employer shall provide effective safeguards to warn employees against entry into discharge areas where the atmosphere remains hazardous to employee safety or health.

1910.160(b)(5)

(5) The employer shall post hazard warning or caution signs at the entrance to, and inside of, areas protected by fixed extinguishing systems which use agents in concentrations known to be hazardous to employee safety and health.

1910.160(b)(6)

(6) The employer shall assure that fixed systems are inspected annually by a person knowledgeable in the design and function of the system to assure that the system is maintained in good operating condition.

1910.160(b)(7)

(7) The employer shall assure that the weight and pressure of refillable containers is checked at least semi-annually. If the container shows a loss in net content or weight of more than 5 percent, or a loss in pressure of more than 10 percent, it shall be subjected to maintenance.

1910.160(b)(8)

(8) The employer shall assure that factory charged nonrefillable containers which have no means of pressure indication are weighed at least semi-annually. If a container shows a loss in net weight or more than 5 percent it shall be replaced.

1910.160(b)(9)

(9) The employer shall assure that inspection and maintenance dates are recorded on the container, on a tag attached to the container, or in a central location. A record of the last semi-annual check shall be maintained until the container is checked again or for the life of the container, whichever is less.

1910.160(b)(10)

(10) The employer shall train employees designated to inspect, maintain, operate, or repair fixed extinguishing systems and annually review their training to keep them up-to-date in the functions they are to perform.

1910.160(b)(11)

(11) The employer shall not use chlorobromomethane or carbon tetrachloride as an extinguishing agent where employees may be exposed.

1910.160(b)(12)

(12) The employer shall assure that systems installed in the presence of corrosive atmospheres are constructed of non-corrosive material or otherwise protected against corrosion.

1910.160(b)(13)

(13) Automatic detection equipment shall be approved, installed and maintained in accordance with 1910.164.

1910.160(b)(14)

(14) The employer shall assure that all systems designed for and installed in areas with climatic extremes shall operate effectively at the expected extreme temperatures.

1910.160(b)(15)

(15) The employer shall assure that at least one manual station is provided for discharge activation of each fixed extinguishing system.

1910.160(b)(16)

(16) The employer shall assure that manual operating devices are identified as to the hazard against which they will provide protection.

1910.160(b)(17)

(17) The employer shall provide and assure the use of the personal protective equipment needed for immediate rescue of employees trapped in hazardous atmospheres created by an agent discharge.

1910.160(c)

(c) Total flooding systems with potential health and safety hazards to employees. (1) The employer shall provide an emergency action plan in accordance with 1910.38 for each area within a workplace that is protected by a total flooding system which provides agent concentrations exceeding the maximum safe levels set forth in paragraphs (b)(5) and (b)(6) of 1910.162.

1910.160(c)(2)

(2) Systems installed in areas where employees cannot enter during or after the system's operation are exempt from the requirements of paragraph (c) of this section.

1910.160(c)(3)

(3) On all total flooding systems the employer shall provide a pre-discharge employee alarm which complies with 1910.165, and is capable of being perceived above ambient light or noise levels before the system discharges, which will give employees time to safely exit from the discharge area prior to system discharge.

1910.160(c)(4)

(4) The employer shall provide automatic actuation of total flooding systems by means of an approved fire detection device installed and interconnected with a pre-discharge employee alarm system to give employees time to safely exit from the discharge area prior to system discharge.

1910.161

1910.161(a)

(a) Scope and application. This section applies to all fixed extinguishing systems, using dry chemical as the extinguishing agent, installed to meet a particular OSHA standard. These systems shall also comply with 1910.160.

1910.161(b)(1)

(b) Specific requirements. (1) The employer shall assure that dry chemical agents are compatible with any foams or wetting agents with which they are used.

1910.161(b)(2)

(2) The employer may not mix together dry chemical extinguishing agents of different compositions. The employer shall assure that dry chemical systems are refilled with the chemical stated on the approval nameplate or an equivalent compatible material.

1910.161(b)(3)

(3) When dry chemical discharge may obscure vision, the employer shall provide a pre-discharge employee alarm which complies with 1910.165 and which will give employees time to safely exit from the discharge area prior to system discharge.

1910.161(b)(4)

(4) The employer shall sample the dry chemical supply of all but stored pressure systems at least annually to assure that the dry chemical supply is free of moisture which may cause the supply to cake or form lumps.

1910.161(b)(5)

(5) The employer shall assure that the rate of application of dry chemicals is such that the designed concentration of the system will be reached within 30 seconds of initial discharge.

1910.162

1910.162(a)(1)

(a) Scope and application - (1) Scope. This section applies to all fixed extinguishing systems, using a gas as the extinguishing agent, installed to meet a particular OSHA standard. These systems shall also comply with 1910.160. In some cases, the gas may be in a liquid state during storage.

1910.162(a)(2)

(2) Application. The requirements of paragraphs (b)(2) and (b)(4) through (b)(6) shall apply only to total flooding systems.

1910.162(b)(1)

(b) Specific requirements. (1) Agents used for initial supply and replenishment shall be of the type approved for the system's application. Carbon dioxide obtained by dry ice conversion to liquid is not acceptable unless it is processed to remove excess water and oil.

1910.162(b)(2)

(2) Except during overhaul, the employer shall assure that the designed concentration of gaseous agents is maintained until the fire has been extinguished or is under control.

1910.162(b)(3)

(3) The employer shall assure that employees are not exposed to toxic levels of gaseous agent or its decomposition products.

1910.162(b)(4)

(4) The employer shall assure that the designed extinguishing concentration is reached within 30 seconds of initial discharge except for Halon systems which must achieve design concentration within 10 seconds.

1910.162(b)(5)

(5) The employer shall provide a distinctive pre-discharge employee alarm capable of being perceived above ambient light or noise levels when agent design concentrations exceed the maximum safe level for employee exposure. A pre-discharge employee alarm for alerting employees before system discharge shall be provided on Halon 1211 and carbon dioxide systems with a design concentration of 4 percent or greater and for Halon 1301 systems with a design concentration of 10 percent or greater. The pre-discharge employee alarm shall provide employees time to safely exit the discharge area prior to system discharge.

1910.162(b)(6)(i)

(6)(i) Where egress from an area cannot be accomplished within one minute, the employer shall not use Halon 1301 in concentrations greater than 7 percent.

1910.162(b)(6)(ii)

(ii) Where egress takes greater than 30 seconds but less than one minute, the employer shall not use Halon 1301 in a concentration greater than 10 percent.

1910.162(b)(6)(iii)

(iii) Halon 1301 concentrations greater than 10 percent are only permitted in areas not normally occupied by employees provided that any employee in the area can escape within 30 seconds. The employer shall assure that no unprotected employees enter the area during agent discharge.

1910.163

1910.163(a)

(a) Scope and application. This section applies to all fixed extinguishing systems, using water or foam solution as the extinguishing agent, installed to meet a particular OSHA standard. These systems shall also comply with 1910.160. This section does not apply to automatic sprinkler systems which are covered under 1910.159.

1910.163(b)(1)

(b) Specific requirements. (1) The employer shall assure that foam and water spray systems are designed to be effective in at least controlling fire in the protected area or on protected equipment.

1910.163(b)(2)

(2) The employer shall assure that drainage of water spray systems is directed away from areas where employees are working and that no emergency egress is permitted through the drainage path.

1910.165(d)

1910.165(d)(1)

(d) Maintenance and testing. (1) The employer shall assure that all employee alarm systems are maintained in operating condition except when undergoing repairs or maintenance.

1910.165(d)(2)

(2) The employer shall assure that a test of the reliability and adequacy of non-supervised employee alarm systems is made every two months. A different actuation device shall be used in each test of a multi-actuation device system so that no individual device is used for two consecutive tests.

1910.165(d)(3)

(3) The employer shall maintain or replace power supplies as often as is necessary to assure a fully operational condition. Back-up means of alarm, such as employee runners or telephones, shall be provided when systems are out of service.

1910.165(d)(4)

(4) The employer shall assure that employee alarm circuitry installed after January 1, 1981, which is capable of being supervised is supervised and that it will provide positive notification to assigned personnel whenever a deficiency exists in the system. The employer shall assure that all supervised employee alarm systems are tested at least annually for reliability and adequacy.

1910.165(d)(5)

(5) The employer shall assure that the servicing, maintenance and testing of employee alarms are done by persons trained in the designed operation and functions necessary for reliable and safe operation of the system.

WIDTH OF EXITS

1910.37(c)(2)

(2) Means of egress shall be measured in units of exit width of 22 inches. Fractions of a unit shall not be counted, except that 12 inches added to one or more full units shall be counted as one-half a unit of exit width.

1910.37(c)(3)

(3) Units of exit width shall be measured in the clear at the narrowest point of the means of egress except that a handrail may project inside the measured width on each side not more than 5 inches and a stringer may project inside the measured width not more than 1 1/2 inches. An exit or exit access door swinging into an aisle or passageway shall not restrict the effective width thereof at any point during its swing to less than the minimum widths hereafter specified.

WIDTH AND CAPACITY OF MEANS OF EGRESS

1910.37(c) "Width and capacity of means of egress." (1) The capacity in number of persons per unit of exit width for approved components of means of egress shall be as follows:

1910.37(c)(1)(i)

(i) Level Egress Components (including Class A Ramps) 100 persons.

1910.37(c)(1)(ii)

(ii) Inclined Egress Components (including Class B Ramps) 60 persons.

1910.37(c)(1)(iii)

(iii) A ramp shall be designated as Class A or Class B in accordance with the following Table E-1:

TABLE E-1

 

Class A

Class B

Width

44 inches and greater

30 to 44 inches

Slope

1 to 1 3/16 inches in 12 inches

1 3/16 to 2 inches in 12 inches

Maximum height between landings

No limit

12feet

FLAMMABLE MATERIAL

Flammable materials (including aerosols, gases, liquids and solids) are liable to be ignited readily and when ignited burn vigorously and persistently.

EMPLOYER AND EMPLOYEES

An employer is anyone who has employees. Employees include all persons who work on the premises and who are subject to the direction of the establishment owner regarding schedule, methods, and materials. Wage status and tax status are not the determining factors. Persons who may be considered to be independent contractors for tax purposes may be employees for OSHA purposes.

SUFFICIENT EXITS

The necessary number of exits from a building depends on its size, its internal configuration, its use and its occupancy. In most cases at least two exits, remote from one another so that fire would not likely block both, are the minimum. More exits are required for buildings with greater occupancy capacity (at least one per 60 occupants). Large buildings or ones in which fire hazard activities occur need more exits. The key principle is that people inside be able to escape promptly.

UNDUE DANGER

Danger and risk can never be totally eliminated, but undue danger is danger that is readily perceived by a prudent person and that can be reasonably removed, guarded against or controlled. Failure to be observant and to adopt reasonable and available safeguards may expose your employees to undue danger.

ADEQUATE AND RELIABLE LIGHTING

Exit areas and routes to exits should be lighted at all times when workers are in the building. Emergency backup lighting in case of power failure is necessary. Lighting should allow occupants to clearly see the exit and the way to it from within the work area.

IGNITION SOURCE

An ignition source is any material or process that could supply sufficient heat to a flammable or combustible material to cause it to start burning. A fuel is any material that once ignited will continue to burn.

FIRE BRIGADE

A fire brigade is a private fire department of trained and properly equipped fire fighting personnel.

APPROVED

Tested and certified by a nationally recognized testing laboratory.

SITE

In or about the workplace.

THRESHOLD LIMITS OF FIRE HAZARD CHEMICALS

CHEMICAL NAME

CAS #

Threshold Quantity in Pounds

Acetaldehyde

75-07-0

2500

Acrolein (2-Propenal)

107-02-8

150

Acrylyl Chloride

 

250

Allyl Chloride

107-05-1

1000

Allylamine

 

1000

Alkylaluminums

 

5000

Ammonia, Anhydrous

 

10000

Ammonia solutions

 

15000

Ammonium Perchlorate

 

7500

Ammonium Permanganate

 

7500

Arsine (Arsenic Hydride)

 

100

Bis(Chloromethyl) Ether

 

100

Boron Trichloride

 

2500

Boron Trifluoride

7637-07-2

250

Bromine

7726-95-6

1500

Bromine Chloride

 

1500

Bromine Pentafluoride

 

2500

Bromine Trifluoride

 

15000

3-Bromopropyne

 

100

Butyl Hydroperoxide (Tertiary)

 

5000

Butyl Perbenzoate (Tertiary)

 

7500

Carbonyl Chloride

 

100

Carbonyl Fluoride

 

2500

Cellulose Nitrate (concentration >12.6% nitrogen)

 

2500

Chlorine

7782-50-5

1500

Chlorine Dioxide

10049-04-4

1000

Chlorine Pentrafluoride

 

1000

Chlorine Trifluoride

7790-91-2

1000

Chlorodiethylaluminum (Diethylaluminum Chloride)

 

5000

1-Chloro-2,4-Dinitrobenzene

 

5000

Chloromethyl Methyl Ether

107-30-2

500

Chloropicrin

76-06-2

500

Chloropicrin and Methyl Bromide mixture

 

1500

Chloropicrin and Methyl Chloride mixture

 

1500

Commune Hydroperoxide

 

5000

Cyanogen

 

2500

Cyanogen Chloride

 

500

Cyanuric Fluoride

 

100

Diacetyl Peroxide (concentration >70%)

 

5000

Diazomethane

334-88-3

500

Dibenzoyl Peroxide

94-36-0

7500

Diborane

19287-45-7

100

Dibutyl Peroxide (Tertiary)

110-05-4

5000

Dichloro Acetylene

7572-29-4

250

Dichlorosilane

4109-96-0

2500

Diethylzinc

557-20-0

10000

Diisopropyl Peroxydicarbonate

105-64-6

7500

Dilauroyl Peroxide

105-74-8

7500

Dimethyldichlorosilane

75-78-5

1000

Dimethylhydrazine, 1,1-

57-14-7

1000

Dimethylamine, Anhydrous

124-40-3

2500

2,4-Dinitroaniline

97-02-9

5000

Ethyl Methyl Ketone Peroxide (also Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide; concentration greater than 60%)

1338-23-4

5000

Ethyl Nitrite

109-95-5

5000

Ethylamine

75-04-7

7500

Ethylene Fluorohydrin

371-62-0

100

Ethylene Oxide

75-21-8

5000

Ethyleneimine

151-56-4

1000

Fluorine

7782-41-4

1000

Formaldehyde (Formalin)

50-00-0

1000

Furan

110-00-9

500

Hexafluoroacetone

684-16-2

5000

Hydrochloric Acid, Anhydrous

7647-01-0

5000

Hydrofluoric Acid, Anhydrous

7664-39-3

1000

Hydrogen Bromide

10035-10-6

5000

Hydrogen Chloride

7647-01-0

5000

Hydrogen Cyanide, Anhydrous

74-90-8

1000

Hydrogen Fluoride

7664-39-3

1000

Hydrogen Peroxide (52% by weight or greater)

7722-84-1

7500

Hydrogen Selenide

7783-07-5

150

Hydrogen Sulfide

7783-06-4

1500

Hydroxylamine

7803-49-8

2500

Iron, Pentacarbonyl

13463-40-6

250

Isopropylamine

75-31-0

5000

Ketene

463-51-4

100

Methacrylaldehyde

78-85-3

1000

Methacryloyl Chloride

920-46-7

150

Methacryloyloxyethyl Isocyanate

30674-80-7

100

Methyl Acrylonitrile

126-98-7

250

Methylamine, Anhydrous

74-89-5

1000

Methyl Bromide

74-83-9

2500

Methyl Chloride

74-87-3

15000

Methyl Chloroformate

79-22-1

500

Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide (concentration greater than 60%)

1338-23-4

5000

Methyl Fluoroacetate

453-18-9

100

Methyl Fluorosulfate

421-20-5

100

Methyl Hydrazine

60-34-4

100

Methyl Iodide

74-88-4

7500

Methyl Isocyanate

624-83-9

250

Methyl Mercaptan

74-93-1

5000

Methyl Vinyl Ketone

79-84-4

100

Methyltrichlorosilane

75-79-6

500

Nickel Carbonly (Nickel Tetracarbonyl)

13463-39-3

150

Nitric Acid (94.5% by weight or greater)

7697-37-2

500

Nitric Oxide

10102-43-9

250

Nitroaniline (para Nitroaniline

100-01-6

5000

Nitromethane

75-52-5

2500

Nitrogen Dioxide

10102-44-0

250

Nitrogen Oxides (NO; NO(2); N2O4; N2O3)

10102-44-0

250

Nitrogen Tetroxide (also called Nitrogen Peroxide)

10544-72-6

250

Nitrogen Trifluoride

7783-54-2

5000

Nitrogen Trioxide

10544-73-7

250

Oleum (65% to 80% by weight; also called Fuming Sulfuric Acid)

8014-94-7

1000

Osmium Tetroxide

20816-12-0

100

Oxygen Difluoride (Fluorine Monoxide)

7783-41-7

100

Ozone

10028-15-6

100

Pentaborane

19624-22-7

100

Peracetic Acid (concentration greater 60% Acetic Acid; also called Peroxyacetic Acid)

79-21-0

1000

Perchloric Acid (concentration greater than 60% by weight)

7601-90-3

5000

Perchloromethyl Mercaptan

594-42-3

150

Perchloryl Fluoride

7616-94-6

5000

Peroxyacetic Acid (concentration greater than 60% Acetic Acid; also called Peracetic Acid)

79-21-0

1000

Phosgene (also called Carbonyl Chloride)

75-44-5

100

Phosphine (Hydrogen Phosphide)

7803-51-2

100

Phosphorus Oxychloride (also called Phosphoryl Chloride)

10025-87-3

1000

Phosphorus Trichloride

7719-12-2

1000

Phosphoryl Chloride (also called Phosphorus Oxychloride)

10025-87-3

1000

Propargyl Bromide

106-96-7

100

Propyl Nitrate

627-3-4

2500

Sarin

107-44-8

100

Selenium Hexafluoride

7783-79-1

1000

Stibine (Antimony Hydride)

7803-52-3

500

Sulfur Dioxide (liquid)

7446-09-5

1000

Sulfur Pentafluoride

5714-22-7

250

Sulfur Tetrafluoride

7783-60-0

250

Sulfur Trioxide (also called Sulfuric Anhydride)

7446-11-9

1000

Sulfuric Anhydride (also called Sulfur Trioxide)

7446-11-9

1000

Tellurium Hexafluoride

7783-80-4

250

Tetrafluoroethylene

116-14-3

5000

Tetrafluorohydrazine

10036-47-2

5000

Tetramethyl Lead

75-74-1

1000

Thionyl Chloride

7719-09-7

250

Trichloro (chloromethyl) Silane

1558-25-4

100

Trichloro (dichlorophenyl) Silane

27137-85-5

2500

Trichlorosilane

10025-78-2

5000

Trifluorochloroethylene

79-38-9

10000

Trimethyoxysilane

2487-90-3

1500

Footnote* Chemical Abstract Service Number
Footnote** Threshold Quantity in Pounds (Amountnecessary to be covered by this standard.)

CLASS A FIRE HAZARDS

Class A fires involve ordinary combustible materials such as paper, wood, cloth and some rubber/plastic materials.

CLASS B FIRE HAZARDS

Class B fires involve flammable liquids, flammable gases, greases and similar materials.

CLASS C FIRE HAZARDS

Class C fires involve energized electrical equipment.

CLASS D FIRE HAZARDS

Class D fires involve combustible metals such as magnesium, titanium, zirconium, sodium, lithium and potassium.

INCIPIENT FIRE

A fire in its initial stage before it has begun spreading rapidly and dangerously.

TYPES OF EVACUATION

The basic type of evacuation is total and immediate. In some instances, partial or staged evacuations may be chosen. The plan should make clear the circumstances and procedures for each.

SPECIAL FIRE HAZARDS

These include flammable liquids, gases and metals.

FIRE TRAINING SCHOOLS

Fire training schools such as Maryland Fire and Rescue Institute, Iowa Fire Service Extension, Georgia Fire Academy, New York State Department of Fire Prevention and Control, Louisiana State University Firemen Training Program,or Washington State Fire Service Training Commission.

SYSTEMS INSTALLED FOR OSHA COMPLIANCE

OSHA has specific requirements for installation of automatic sprinklers, other fixed automatic extinguisher systems or automatic fire detectors in workplaces where high hazard materials are stored, dispensed or processed. If you are unsure about whether your workplace is covered contact your OSHA area office or state occupational safety advisory service.

FIRE PREVENTION PLAN

The plan contains:

A list of the major workplace fire hazards and their proper handling and storage procedures, potential ignition sources (such as welding, smoking and others) and their control procedures, and the type of fire protection equipment or systems which can control a fire involving them.

Names or regular job titles of those personnel responsible for maintenance of equipment and systems installed to prevent or control ignitions or fires. and

Names or regular job titles of those personnel responsible for control of fuel source hazards.

FIRE SAFETY SUMMARY

The Fire Safety Summary is a series of screens which appear at the beginning of a Fire Safety Advisor session to inform the user of some basic principles of fire safety and of the purpose and background of OSHAs fire safety standards.

EMERGENCY ACTION PLAN

A plan for a workplace, describing what procedures the employer and employees must take to ensure employee safety from fire or other emergencies.

STATES AND TERRITORIES WITH OSHA-APPROVED PLANS

Alaska, Arizona, California, Connecticut, Hawaii, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Nevada, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Oregon, Puerto Rico, South Carolina, Tennessee, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Virgin Islands, Washington, Wyoming. For Connecticut and New York State plans apply only to public employees and private employees are under Federal standards.

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