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1National Household Survey on Drug Abuse. August 1998. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Rockville, MD.

2National Household Survey on Drug Abuse. Main Findings. September 1996. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Rockville, MD.

3National Household Survey on Drug Abuse. August 1998. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Rockville, MD.

4"An Analysis of Worker Drug Use and Workplace Policies and Programs." Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Rockville, MD. July 1997.

5"Addiction in the Workplace Survey." October 22, 1996. Hazelden Foundation. Center City, MN.

6"The Economic Costs of Alcohol and Drug Abuse in the United States." 1992. National Institute on Drug Abuse. National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse. Rockville, MD.

7Substance Abuse and Mental Health Statistics Sourcebook, 5/95, p.3. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Rockville, MD.

8"An Analysis of Worker Drug Use and Workplace Policies and Programs," July, 1997. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, DHHS. Rockville, MD.

9Backer, T.E. Strategic Planning for Workplace Drug Abuse Programs, p. 4. National Institute on Drug Abuse. Rockville, MD. 1987.

10Normand, J., Salyards, S. & Maloney, J. "An Evaluation of Preemployment Drug Testing." Journal of Applied Psychology. Vol. 75, No. 6, 1990. pp. 629-639.

11National Cocaine Helpline. "1-800-COCAINE." Summit, NJ. 1987.

12"Treatment is the Answer: A White Paper on the Cost-Effectiveness of Alcoholism and Drug Dependency Treatment." National Association of Treatment Providers. Laguna Hills, CA. March, 1991.

13Working Partners: Substance Abuse in the Workplace. U.S. Department of Labor. Washington, DC. 1994.

14"Keeping Score." Drug Strategies. Washington, DC. 1996

15DeLancey, Marci. Does Drug Testing Work?. Institute for a Drug-Free Workplace. Washington, DC. 1994.

16"1996 AMA Survey on Workplace Drug Testing and Drug Abuse Policies." American Management Association. N.Y., New York. 1996.

17French, M.T., Zarkin, G.A., Bray, J.W., & Hartwell, T.D. "Costs of Employee Assistance Programs: Findings from a National Survey." Research Triangle Institute. Research Triangle Park, NC, 1994).

18Falco, M. The Making of a Drug-Free America: Programs That Work. New York, NY. Times Books, 1994.

19"Cost Effectiveness System to Measure Drug and Alcohol Treatment Outcomes." Columbus, OH. Comprehensive Assessment Treatment Outcomes Registry (CATOR)/ New Standards, Inc. conducted for the Ohio Department of Alcohol and Drug Addiction Services. 1995.


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