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Footnotes

  1. Carroll D. Wright, "Factory Legislation," in Tenth Census of the United States, v. II, p. 41.
  2. Annual Report, Massachusetts Bureau of Statistics of Labor (MBSL), 1870, 213-15; 1871, 470-71; 1873, 281; 1874, 111-154.
  3. MBSL 1882, 221-24
  4. MBSL 1875, 142-77; 1874, 155-59
  5. MBSL 1875, 67-112; 1884, 58-75.
  6. MBLS 1874, 43-48.
  7. MBSL 1872, 421-25; 1883, 73-74; 1871, 470-71; 1873, 281.
  8. Annual Report, Rhode Island Bureau of Industrial Statistics (RIBIS), 1887, 152; 1887, 40
  9. Annual Report, New York Bureau of Labor Statistics (NYBLS), 1899, 561-65, 588-639.
  10. NYBLS 1884, 183-89.
  11. NYBLS 1885, 169-70.
  12. NYBLS 1895, 20-21.
  13. NYBLS 1884, 197-99.
  14. Annual Report, New Jersey Bureau of Statistics of Labor and Industry (NJBSLI), 1889; 1890.
  15. NJBSLI 1894, 81-83; 1895.
  16. NJBSLI 1891, 175-77; 1892, 350; 1890, 367-70.
  17. Annual Report, Pennsylvania Bureau of Industrial Statistics (PaBIS), 1891, 19-33.
  18. Melvin Dubofsky, "Organized Labor and the Immigrant in New York City, 1900-1918," Labor History, Spring 1961, 183-184.
  19. PaBIS 1893, Part B, 4-5.
  20. Annual Report, Ohio Bureau of Labor Statistics (OhioBLS), 1881, 102-105; 1883, 103.
  21. OhioBLS 1878, 18; 1886, 11-12.
  22. OhioBLS 1895, 33; 1893, 853.
  23. Annual Report, Wisconsin Bureau of Labor and Industrial Statistics (WisBLIS), 1897-1898, 210.
  24. WisBLIS 1901-1902, 671-75.
  25. WisBLIS 1901-1902, 740-41.
  26. WisBLIS 1901-1902, 707, 710-11, 696-97.
  27. Ezekiel H. Downey, History of Labor Legislation in Iowa, Iowa City, 1910, 104.
  28. Annual Report, Minnesota Bureau of Labor Statistics (MinnBLS), 1892, 104, 107-16.
  29. MBSL 1870, 197; 1875, 177-87; NYBLS 1899, 563; NJBLS 1890, 363-66; MBSL 1890-91, 5-10.
  30. Annual Report, Connecticut Bureau of Labor Statistics (ConnBLS) 1885, 85-91; Alba Edwards, The Labor Legislation of Connecticut, New York, 1907, 252-53.
  31. Wright, 41-48.
  32. Herbert Gutman, "Class, Status and Community Power in Nineteenth Century American Industrial Cities," in his book, Work, Culture, and Society in Industrializing America, New York, 1976.
  33. John R. Commons et al., History of Labour in the United States, in 4 v., New York, 1946, (Commons, Labour), v. II, 97-98.
  34. ibid., 393-95.
  35. John R. Commons and John B. Andrews, Principles of Labor Legislation, New York, 1916, 208-24; Sarah S. Whittelsey, Massachusetts Labor Legislation, An Historical and Critical Study, Philadelphia, 1900, 70-71.
  36. Commons, Labour, I, 331; Commons and Andrews, 305-10.
  37. Commons and Andrews, 419-21; John R. Commons et al., eds., A Documentary History of American Industrial Society, 10 vols., New York, 1958, (Commons, Doc.Hist.),  v. 4, 223-24.
  38. Jonathan Grossman and Judson MacLaury, "The Creation of the Bureau of Labor Statistics," Monthly Labor Review, February 1975..
  39. John Mitchell, Organized Labor, Philadelphia, 1903, 144.
  40. Philip Taft, Organized Labor in American History, New York, 1964, 233-238.
  41. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bulletin No.12 (BLS Bul. 12), 563.
  42. E. Stagg Whitin, Factory Legislation in Maine, New York, 1908, 140-41.
  43. BLS Bul. 12, 551.
  44. BLS Bul.12, 552-53; Whittelsey, 21-23.
  45. Whittelsey, 112-25.
  46. Edwards, 252-56, 266-70, 313-15; BLS Bul. 12, 556.
  47. Gutman, 269-89; BLS Bul. 12, 554; NJBLS 1886, 239-41.
  48. Annual Report, New York Bureau of Factory Inspection (NY Fact. Insp.), 1886, 36-37; 1887, 6-7, 10-13, 42, 45; 1889, 72-73; BLS Bul. 12, 555-556.
  49. The Factory Inspector (TFI), Jan. 1904; J. Lynn Barnard, Factory Legislation and Administration in Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, 1907, 55-57.
  50. TFI, Jan. 1904; Barnard, 58-60, 69-80, 111-12.
  51. TFI, July 1903; BLS Bul. 12, 555.
  52. BLS Bul. 12, 560; WisBLIS 1888, ix-x; 1898, 199; Gordon M. Haferbecker, Wisconsin Labor Laws, Madison, WI, 1958, 8-10.
  53. Martin Nemirow, The Origins and Early Enforcement of the 1891 Missouri Factory Inspection Act, unpublished Dept. of Labor monograph, 1976, 3-10, 33-34, 45-48, 72-76, 83; BLS Bul. 12, 560.
  54. Downey, 2-5.
  55. Downey, 95-96, 103-106.
  56. Earl R. Beckner, A History of Labor Legislation in Illinois, Chicago, 1929, 151-166, 227-28, 239, 245-46, 259-64, 506-507; Eugene Staley, History of the Illinois State Federation of Labor, Chicago, 1930, 33-34, 152-53.
  57. Daniel Nelson, Managers and Workers: Origins of the New Factory System in the United States, 1880-1920, Madison, WI, 1975, 128, 136-37.
  58. Susan M. Kingsbury, ed., Labor Laws and their Enforcement, New York, 1911,  223-24; Whittelsey, 27-28, 35, 89.
  59. Edwards, 262-63, 296-99.
  60. RIBLS 1887, 17; 1888, l06.
  61. NJBLS 1901, 347-58.
  62. PaBIS 1887, E-23.
  63. Barnard, 125.
  64. NY Fact. Insp. 1888, 6-7.
  65. NY Fact. Insp. 1888, 6-7; 1887, 40-41.
  66. NYBLS 1884, 186-87.
  67. NY Fact. Insp. 1887, 42, 96-97, 117; 1888, 7, 81.
  68. NY Fact. Insp. 1888, 91.
  69. NY Fact. Insp. 1887, 41-42; 1889, 69-70.
  70. NY Fact. Insp. 1887, 32-33, 115.
  71. WisBLIS 1888-89, vi; 1885-86, 504-505, 522.
  72. WisBLIS 1885-86, 501-513; 1891-92, 22a; 1897-98, xi-xii; Haferbecker, 18.
  73. MinnBLS 1892, 35.
  74. MinnBLS 1892, 33-34.
  75. MinnBLS 1892, 39.
  76. Annual Report, Indiana Dept. of Factory Inspection (IFI) 1898, 5, 22, 115-19; 1900, 223-30; TFI, October 1903.
  77. IFI 1898, 6-8; 1903, 6-7.
  78. IFI 1897, 42, 45; 1898, 6.
  79. TFI, July 1903.
  80. TFI, July 1903.
  81. OhioBLS 1896, 15.
  82. Nemirow, 65, 105.
  83. TFI, Dec. 1902; Annual Convention, International Association of Factory Inspectors, 1888.
  84. Whitin, 91-92.
  85. Nemirow, 96-99.
  86. Leonard Hatch, "The Prevention of Accidents," American Labor Legislation Review, June, 1911, l06.
  87. Frederick L. Hoffman, "Legal Protection from Injurious Dusts," American Labor Legislation Review, June, 1911, 110-112.
  88. Kingsbury, 268-69.
  89. Hatch, 105-l06.
  90. Barnard, v-vi; Kingsbury, 224; TFI, Jan. 1905.
  91. Edwards, 296, 309-10.
  92. Commons and Andrews, 3-4, 327, 297.
  93. ibid., 349-51.
  94. ibid., 298-300.
  95. ibid., 331-38.
  96. Barnard, 112-13, 125, 165-66.
  97. Edwards, 259-60.
  98. Kingsbury, 270.
  99. Haferbecker, 18-19.
  100. Report of the Commission to Investigate the Inspection of Factories, Workshops, Mercantile Establishments and Other Buildings, Massachusetts, 1911 (Mass. Report), 11-13.
  101. Mass. Report, 18-23
  102. Mass. Report, 28-31, 56.
  103. Mass. Report, 53-54, 59.
  104. Mass. Report, 14, 21, 25-26, 56, 58.
  105. Mass. Report, 14-16, 55, 60.
  106. Mass. Report, 26, 56-57, 66-67.
  107. George Price, Hygiene and Public Health, Philadelphia, 1919, 1-2, 4.
  108. Price, 2-3.
  109. Price, 7-9.
  110. John and Irene Andrews, "Scientific Standards in Labor Legislation," American Labor Legislation Review, June, 1911, 123, 130.
  111. ibid., 124.
  112. ibid., 126-27.
  113. Thomas J. Kerr, IV, "New York Factory Investigating Commission and the Progressives," D.S.Sc. Diss., Syracuse University, 1965, 39-53; Richard Hofstadter, The Age of Reform; from Bryan to F. D. R., New York, 1955, 186-87; Commons and Andrews, 421-22.
  114. TFI, Oct. 1907.
  115. TFI, April 1905.
  116. TFI, July l904, April 1905, July 1903, Jan. 1905, Oct. l904.
  117. TFI, Oct. 1905.
  118. TFI, Jan. 1905.
  119. William B. Hard, "Making Steel and Killing Men," Everybody's Magazine, Nov., 1907; David Brody, Steelworkers in America: The Nonunion Era, New York, 1969, 156, 158.
  120. Charles Rumford Walker, Steel: The Diary of a Furnace Worker, Boston, 1932, 87, 132-34.
  121. ibid., 40-41.
  122. Brody, 99-101.
  123. Crystal Eastman, ed., Work Accidents and the Law, New York, 1910, 5-7.
  124. ibid., 11-15, 119-31.
  125. ibid.,152
  126. ibid., 84-85, 103.
  127. ibid., 86, 93-95.
  128. Brody, 145, 156.
  129. Eastman, 245-46; Roy Lubove, "Workmen's Compensation and the Prerogatives of Voluntarism," Labor History, Fall 1967, 254.
  130. Commons and Andrews, 296; Kerr, 54-55.
  131. Lubove, 258.
  132. Commons and Andrews, 262, 384.
  133. Beckner, 438-39; Mitchell, 147-50; James Weinstein, "Big Business and the Origins of Workmen's Compensation," Labor History, Spring 1967, 159-60, 162-70.
  134. Weinstein, 162-70; Lubove, 266-67.
  135. U.S. Dept. of Labor, Growth of Labor Law in the United States, Washington, 1966, (Labor Law), 141; Lubove, 264-65; Beckner, 429-30.
  136. Commons and Andrews, 352, 430-36, 443-50; Kingsbury, 268-69; Andrews and Andrews, 128-29.
  137. Andrews and Andrews, 130.
  138. Labor Law, 183; l9ll Mass Rep, 39; Commons and Andrews, 328-30; Andrews and Andrews, 130-34; Haferbecker, 5-8,19-20.
  139. Labor Law, 183-84.
  140. Haferbecker, 10-11, 20-21; Commons and Andrews, 436, 443-50.
  141. Beyer, 245-46, 260-61; Brody, 166-67.
  142. John B. Andrews, Administrative Labor Legislation, New York, 1936, 10-11, 21, 24.
  143. Commons and Andrews, 300, 355; Robert Asher, "Radicalism and Reform: Workmen's Compensation in Minnesota, 1910-1930," Labor History, Winter 1973, 36; Lubove, 278; Nelson, 138-39.
  144. Angela N. Young, "Interpreting the Dangerous Trades," Ph.D. Diss., Brown University, 1982, 1-20.
  145. Beckner, 272-73; Report, Illinois Commission on Occupational Diseases, 1911(Ill. Rep.), 13-14, 19; Alice Hamilton, Exploring the Dangerous Trades, Boston, 1943, 121.
  146. Hamilton, 55, 114-17, 3.
  147. Beckner, 272-78; Ill. Rep., 13-14; Hamilton, 3, 121.
  148. Hamilton, 121, 139; Ill. Rep., 273-78.
  149. Ill. Rep., 24.
  150. Beckner, 278-82; Ill. Rep., 165-71.
  151. Hamilton, 127-28.
  152. Young, 11-12.
  153. John B. Andrews, "Phosphorus Poisoning in the Match Industry in the United States," BLS Bul. 86.
  154. Young, 12-13; Andrews, BLS Bul. 86.
  155. Commons and Andrews, 325-26; Andrews, BLS Bul. 86; Young, 13.
  156. Young, 1, 10-11.
  157. Kerr, 1-31; Leon Stein, ed., Out of the Sweatshop: The Struggle for Industrial Democracy, New York, 1977, 188-95.
  158. Report of the New York Factory Investigating Commission (NY FIC), 1912, v. I, 11-16.
  159. Frances Perkins, People at Work, New York, 1934, 50.
  160. George Martin, Madam Secretary, Frances Perkins, Boston, 1976, 104, 88-90.
  161. NY FIC 1912, II, 5-10.
  162. NY FIC 1912, I, 21-26; 1913, II, 401-408; Kerr, 79-80.
  163. NY FIC 1913, II, 459, 462, 467-68.
  164. NY FIC 1913, II, 464-66, 468.
  165. NY FIC 1913, II, 467, 475-76.
  166. NY FIC 1912, I, 18; 1913, IV,  2313-2431.
  167. Kerr, 88, 94-118, 156-63.
  168. Kerr, 119-164; NY FIC 1912,  I, 20.