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FOOTNOTES

1. U.S. Congress, Senate, History of Employment and Manpower Policy in the United States, prepared for a subcommittee of the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare, Senate, 88th Cong., 1966, v. 7, pt. 1, p. 1.

2. U.S. President, Economic Report of the President, 1958-1960, (Washington, DC: GPO, 1960) p. 96.

3. U.S. President, Economic Report for 1960, p. 12; U.S. Congress, Joint Economic Committee, Employment, Growth and Price Levels by Otto Eckstein, Study Paper 23 (Washington, DC: GPO, 1960) p. 7.

4. U.S. Congress, Joint Economic Committee, Extent and Nature of Frictional Unemployment, by Bureau of Labor Statistics, Study Paper 6 (Washington, DC: GPO, 1959) p. 2.

5. U.S. Congress, Joint Economic Committee, Automation and Technological Change, Hearing before a subcommittee (Washington, DC: GPO, 1955) p. 34.

6. Ibid., p.264; U.S Dept. of Labor, Bureau of Apprenticeship, The Skilled Work Force (Washington, DC: GPO, 1953) p. 14.

7. U.S. Congress, Senate, Special Committee on Unemployment Problems, Readings in Unemployment, "Labor Looks at Automation," 86th Cong., 1st sess., (Washington, DC: GPO, 1960) p. 556.

8. U.S. Congress, Joint Economic Committee, Automation and Technological Change, p. 450.

9. U.S. Congress, Joint Economic Committee, New Views on Automation, Papers submitted to subcommittee (Washington, DC: GPO, 1960) p. 123.

10. Interview with James P. Mitchell, Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training, July 1974.

11. National Manpower Council, Improving Work Skills of the Nation, Proceedings of a Conference on Skilled Manpower (New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1955) pp. 7-9.

12. Ibid., p. 179.

13. Ibid., p. 149.

14. General Order No. 63, Dept. of Labor, Historical Office (Hist. Ofce.).

15. A.Larson to Policy and Operations Committee, Dec. 6, 1954, National Archives, Records of Program, Planning, and Review Committee, U.S. Dept. of Labor (PPRC Records).

16. Jonathan Grossman, The Department of Labor (New York: Praeger, 1973) p. 130.

17. Interview with Seymour Wolfbein, July 1974; Mitchell Interview.

18. Eli Ginzburg to Secretary Mitchell, July 14, 1955, National Archives, Records of the Office of the Secretary of Labor (Secretary's Records).

19. Ginzburg to Secretary Mitchell, August 23, 1955, Secretary's Records.

20. E.R. Chappel to Secretary Mitchell, October 28, 1955, Secretary's Records.

21. Ibid.

22. Mitchell Interview.

23. Testimony of Secretary Mitchell, in Joint Economic Committee, New Views on Automation, 1960, p. 190.

24. U.S. Dept. of Labor, Bureau of Employment Security, Services to the Older Workers by the Public Employment Service (Washington, DC: GPO, 1957) p. 8.

25. U.S. Congress, Senate, Studies in Unemployment, "Employment Problems of Older Workers," by Arthur and Jane Ross, prepared for special subcommittee of the Senate, 86th Cong., 2nd sess., 1960, p. 99.

26. U.S. Dept. of Labor, Bureau of Employment Security, Older Worker Adjustment of Labor Market Practices (Washington, DC: GPO, 1956) p. 1.

27. Ibid., p. 21.

28. U.S. Congress, Joint Economic Committee, "The Structure of Unemployment in Areas of Substantial Labor Surplus," prepared by Bureau of Labor Statistics, Study Paper 23, (Washington, DC: GPO, 1960) p. 6.

29. For a good account of the legislative history of area redevelopment legislation see Sar Lavitan, Federal Aid to Depressed Areas: An Evaluation of Area Redevelopment Administration, (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Press, 1964).

30. Levitan, p. 5.

31. Levitan, p. 9; James L. Sundquist, Politics and Policy: the Eisenhower, Kennedy, and Johnson Years (Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution, 1968) p. 66.

32. Levitan, p.13; Sundquist, p. 67.

33. Nixon wanted Eisenhower to sign the bill to remove depressed area legislation as an issue in his presidential campaign in 1960.

34. Millard Cass to John Gilhooley, "Community Economic Growth and Stability," March 29, 1955, PPRC Records.

35. Ibid.

36. Ibid.

37. "Proposals for Department Action Re Areas of Chronic Unemployment," April 30, 1956, PPRC Records.

38. Ibid.

39. Cass to Secretary Mitchell, "Department Actions Re Areas of Chronic Unemployment," May 8, 1956, PPRC Records.

40. David Christian to Cass, November 29, 1955, PPRC Records.

41. Interview with Louise Freeman, Office of the Solicitor, July 1974; Report of Forest Miller, Bureau of Employment Security, "Income Maintenance Program for Trainees," December 23, 1955, PPRC Records.

42. Report, "Development of Job Opportunities in Areas of Labor Surplus," January 24, 1955, PPRC Records.

43. Wolfbein Interview; Report of Forest Miller, PPRC Records.

44. Report, "Training Needs for Employment Service Job Applicants and Need for Income Maintenance for Trainees," January 12, 1956, PPRC Records.

45. Wolfbein Interview.

46. U.S. Congress, Joint Economic Committee, Employment, Growth and Price Levels, Study Paper 1043, (Washington, DC: GPO, 1960) p. 13.

47. Sundquist, p. 77.

48. Interview with Stanley Ruttenberg, July 1974.

49. Sundquist, p. 78.

50. U.S. Congress, Senate, Studies in Unemployment, prepared by Special Committee on Unemployment Problems, 86th Cong., 2nd sess., 1960 (Washington, DC: GPO, 1960) p. 248.

51. Levitan, p.15; John F. Kennedy, Speeches of 1960 Presidential Campaign.

52. Levitan, p.19; Sundquist, p.84.

53. U.S. President, Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States, John F. Kennedy, 1960-61 (Washington, DC: GPO, 1961) p. 344.

54. Sundquist, p. 77.

55. U.S. Congress, Senate, Vocational Retraining Act of 1961, S. 987, 87th Cong., 1st sess., p. 1.

56. Ibid.

57. Ibid.

58. Interview with Arthur Goldberg, July 1974; Wolfbein Interview.

59. Cass to Arthur Goldberg, December 30, 1960, Secretary's Records.

60. Robert Goodwin to Secretary Goldberg, "Some Possible Measures to Combat Persistent Unemployment," January 26, Secretary's Records.

61. "What is Government's Role in Automation?" November 7, 1960, Secretary's Records.

62. Wolfbein to Cass, March 16, 1961, PPRC Records.

63. Ibid.

64. Report of the Ad Hoc Committee on Training and Retraining, PPRC Records.

65. Ibid.

66. Ibid.

67. Ibid.

68. General Order, April 20, 1961, Hist. Ofce.; Press Release, April 20, 1961, Hist. Ofce.

69. Interview with Michael March, August 1974.

70. Ibid.; Sundquist, p. 87.

71. March Interview; Sundquist, p.88.

72. Interview with Dr. Howard Matthews, Office of Education, July 1974.

73. Ibid.

74. Ibid.

75. Sundquist, p.88.

76. March Interview.

77. U.S. Congress, Senate, Manpower Development and Training Act, S. 1991, 87th Cong., 1st sess., 1961.

78. U.S. Congress, Senate, Training of the Unemployed, Hearing before a subcommittee of the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare, 87th Cong., 1st sess., p. 180.

79. Ibid.

80. Ibid.

81. Ruttenberg Interview.

82. Mitchell and Ruttenberg Interviews.

83. Training of the Unemployed, Hearings, p.206.

84. Mitchell Interview.

85. U.S. Cong., Senate, Manpower Development and Training Act of 1961, Senate Report 651 to Accompany S. 1991, 87th Cong., 1st sess.

86. U.S. Cong., House, Manpower Development and Training Act of 1961, H.R. Report 879, Supplemental view to accompany H.R. 8399, 87th Cong., 1st sess.

87. Ibid.