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Flexible Staffing Arrangements

A Report on Temporary Help, On-Call, Direct-Hire Temporary, Leased, Contract Company, and Independent Contractor Employment in the United States

Susan N. Houseman
August 1999

Table 2. Characteristics of Workers by Working Arrangement (in percent)

Agency Temporaries

On-call or Day Laborers

Independent Contractors

Contract Company Workers

Other Direct-Hire Temporaries

Other Self Employed

Regular Employees

Gender

Male

44.7

49.6

66.6

70.0

48.1

61.6

52.3

Female

55.3

50.4

33.4

30.1

51.9

38.4

47.7

Age

16-19

6.1

9.5

0.8

2.0

16.0

0.5

4.9

20-24

16.5

12.0

2.4

8.6

20.6

2.4

10.0

25-34

30.3

22.6

18.3

34.7

23.5

15.7

26.1

34-44

21.5

25.5

31.1

30.1

17.7

28.2

28.0

45-54

16.2

14.3

26.5

14.6

12.4

26.1

20.3

55-64

6.7

9.7

13.9

7.8

6.7

17.2

8.8

65+

2.8

6.4

7.0

2.2

3.2

9.9

2.0

Race/Ethnicity

White

63.3

75.9

83.5

74.1

70.3

88.4

75.1

Black

20.8

7.5

5.3

13.7

9.6

3.2

11.1

Hispanic

12.3

13.6

7.3

6.7

11.4

4.2

9.9

Other

3.6

3.1

4.0

5.5

8.6

4.2

3.9

Education

Less Than High School

13.3

20.2

9.4

8.8

15.8

10.2

12.5

High School

31.7

27.4

29.8

36.7

20.6

30.7

32.9

Some College

36.5

30.3

26.7

24.4

32.3

24.9

28.9

College+

18.5

22.0

34.1

30.1

31.3

34.2

25.6

Source: Author’s tabulations from February 1997 CPS Supplement on Contingent and Alternative Work Arrangements.

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