Skip to page content
Office of the Secretary
Bookmark and Share

Functional Literacy and Labor Market Outcomes

Robert I. Lerman and Stefanie R. Schmidt

The Urban Institute
100 M Street, NW
Washington, DC 20037

June 1999


Text Only Table 7: Effects of Education, Literacy, and Other Variables on tIncidence of Low Wages of Female Workers
Independent Variables

Age
Age Model 1 -0.091 Model 2 (Marginal Effect) -0.090 Model 3 -0.075
Age Squared Model 1 0.002 Model 2 (Marginal Effect) 0.002 Model 3 0.002
Age cubed Model 1 0.000 Model 2 (Marginal Effect) 0.000 Model 3 0.000

Race/Ethnicity
Black Model 1-0.145** Model 2 (Marginal Effect) -0.0087** Model 3 -0.0160**
Hispanic Model 1 -0.044 Model 2 (Marginal Effect) 0.019 Model 3 -0.040
Other Race/Ethnicity Model 1 -0.0055 Model 2 (Marginal Effect) -0.011 Model 3 -0.079**

Birth Place
Foreign born Model 1 -0.014** Model 2 (Marginal Effect) 0.045* Model 3 -0.039

Regional Location
Live in the Midwest Model 1 0.064** Model 2 (Marginal Effect) 0.056** Model 3 0.084**
Live in the South Model 1 0.023 Model 2 (Marginal Effect) 0.023 Model 3 0.032*
Live in the West Model 1 -0.020 Model 2 (Marginal Effect) -0.035* Model 3 -0.013

Education
Less than a High School Education Model 1 0.077** Model 2 (Marginal Effect) 0.151** Model 3 N/A
GED Education Model 1 0.020 Model 2 (Marginal Effect) 0.011 Model 3 N/A
Some Post-secondary Education Model 1 -0.055** Model 2 (Marginal Effect) -0.087** Model 3 N/A
College Education Model 1 -0.170** Model 2 (Marginal Effect) -0.216** Model 3 N/A

Functional Literacy Level
Functional Literacy Level=1 Model 1 0.298** Model 2 (Marginal Effect) N/A Model 3 0.400**
Functional Literacy Level=2 Model 1 0.097** Model 2 (Marginal Effect) N/A Model 3 0.151**
Functional Literacy Level=4 or 5 Model 1 -0.032* Model 2 (Marginal Effect) N/A Model 3 -0.097**

Marital Status
Married and Living with Spouse 1Model 1 0.069** Model 2 (Marginal Effect) 0.058** Model 3 0.073**

Health
Physical Disability Model 1 0.034 Model 2 (Marginal Effect) 0.055** Model 3 0.041*
Poor Health Model 10.058** Model 2 (Marginal Effect) 0.055** Model 3 0.063**

  1. Includes individuals who are not married but are in a living situation similar to marriage.

Note: Model 1 (obs=5213), Model 2 (obs=5213), Model 3 (obs=5219).
** Indicates significance at the 5 percent level.
* Indicates significance at the 10 percent level.


Return to Tables