Skip to page content
Office of the Secretary
Bookmark and Share

Functional Literacy and Labor Market Outcomes

Robert I. Lerman and Stefanie R. Schmidt

The Urban Institute
100 M Street, NW
Washington, DC 20037

June 1999


Text Only Table 6: Effects of Education, Literacy, and Other Variables on tIncidence of Low Wages of Male Workers
Independent Variables

Age
Age Model 1 -0.014 Model 2 (Marginal Effect) -0.009 Model 3 -0.013
Age Squared Model 1 0.000 Model 2 (Marginal Effect) 0.000 Model 3 0.000
Age cubed Model 1 0.000 Model 2 (Marginal Effect) 0.000 Model 3 0.000

Race/Ethnicity
Black Model 1 0.011 Model 2 (Marginal Effect) 0.0037** Model 3 0.003
Hispanic Model 1 0.015 Model 2 (Marginal Effect) 0.032** Model 3 0.024
Other Race/Ethnicity Model 1 0.0065** Model 2 (Marginal Effect) 0.082** Model 3 0.058**

Birth Place
Foreign born Model 1 0.029** Model 2 (Marginal Effect) 0.051** Model 3 0.019

Regional Location
Live in the Midwest Model 1 0.030** Model 2 (Marginal Effect) 0.030** Model 3 0.036**
Live in the South Model 1 0.044** Model 2 (Marginal Effect) 0.047** Model 3 0.052
Live in the West Model 1 0.002 Model 2 (Marginal Effect) 0.001 Model 3 0.009**

Education
Less than a High School Education Model 1 0.058** Model 2 (Marginal Effect) 0.080** Model 3 N/A
GED Education Model 1 0.095** Model 2 (Marginal Effect) 0.094** Model 3 N/A
Some Post-secondary Education Model 1 -0.004 Model 2 (Marginal Effect) -0.019 Model 3 N/A
College Education Model 1 -0.023** Model 2 (Marginal Effect) -0.047** Model 3 N/A

Functional Literacy Level
Functional Literacy Level=1 Model 1 0.072** Model 2 (Marginal Effect) N/A Model 3 0.125**
Functional Literacy Level=2 Model 1 0.033 Model 2 (Marginal Effect) N/A Model 3 0.051**
Functional Literacy Level=4 or 5 Model 1 -0.021** Model 2 (Marginal Effect) N/A Model 3 -0.037**

Marital Status
Married and Living with Spouse 1Model 1 -0.088** Model 2 (Marginal Effect) -0.096** Model 3 -0.085**

Health
Physical Disability Model 1 0.010 Model 2 (Marginal Effect) 0.016 Model 3 0.014
Poor Health Model 10.019 Model 2 (Marginal Effect) 0.017 Model 3 0.026*

  1. Includes individuals who are not married but are in a living situation similar to marriage.

Note: Model 1 (obs=5088), Model 2 (obs=5088), Model 3 (obs=5096).
** Indicates significance at the 5 percent level.
* Indicates significance at the 10 percent level.


Return to Tables