Office of the Assistant Secretary for Policy (OASP)
Summary of the WHD/OSHA Worker Voice Literature Review Review
This literature review has two main purposes: first, to review the definition of voice from its inception in Hirschman's 1970 work Exit, Voice, and Loyalty to the present definition of voice in the current research literature. The second purpose is to review the existing quantitative survey research on voice and to examine the survey items used to measure voice as well as the positive and negative outcomes associated with voice in the current research literature. This information was used to facilitate the development of a survey to measure a "worker's ability to access information on their rights in the workplace, their understanding of those rights, and their ability to exercise those rights without fear of discrimination or retaliation."